The Federal Government of the United States is divided into three branches:
The Legislative branch is responsible for creating laws and is divided into two separate bodies: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Senate has 100 members - 2 Senators from each State - who each serve 6 year terms.
The House of Representatives has 435 members which are divided among the 50 states based on the population of each state. States with more people have more Representatives than States with fewer people. Representatives each serve terms of 2 years.
The Executive branch is responsible for carrying out and enforcing the laws that the Legislature creates, and consists of the President, the Vice President, the Cabinet, the executive departments, and federal agencies.
The President is the leader of the United States and serves a 4 year term. The President is limited to a total of 8 years in office (or 2 terms.)
The Vice President works in support of the President and is elected alongside the President.
The Cabinet members serve as advisors to the President and includes the VP, and the heads of the executive departments. The Cabinet members are nominated by the President and must be approved by a simple majority vote in the Senate.
The Judicial branch interprets the meaning of laws, applies laws to individual cases, and decides if the laws violate the Constitution, and is made up of the Supreme Court and other federal courts.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States and includes 9 Justices who are nominated by the President and approved by the Senate.
Supreme Court Justices serve lifetime terms which means that once nominated and approved, serve until death or retirement.